Posts Tagged ‘Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup’


One of the iconic singers of the 20th century, Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was born in Tupelo, Mississippi to 18-year-old Vernon Elvis and 22-year-old Gladys Love Presley. His identical twin brother, Jesse Garon Presley, was stillborn. As a young boy, he was often taunted as a “white trash” hillbilly from the wrong side of the Tupelo tracks— the local African-American neighborhood. Elvis was a fan of country radio station WELO in Tupelo, but when his family moved to Memphis in November of 1948, he fell under the spell of WDIA‘s rhythm and blues.

The Presleys moved into public housing in Memphis and Elvis became known as a shy boy at Humes High School. He learned some guitar from his neighbor, Jesse Lee Denson, and became musical friends with future rockabilly pioneers, Paul Burlison and the brothers, Johnny and Dorsey Burnette. By 1953, his senior year, Elvis was greasing his hair, sporting sideburns, wearing flashy clothes from Lansky Brothers on Beale Street and performing in the school’s talent show.

Presley took a job driving a truck for Crown Electric company, but also auditioned for several music groups— and failed. Local Memphis music figure, Eddie Bond, told Elvis to stick to truck driving “because you’re never going to make it as a singer.” However, in August of 1953, the young man walked into Sun Records and payed to have his singing recorded on a two-sided acetate disc as a gift for his mother. The studio’s more-than-a-secretary, Marion Keisker, took note and recommended him to her boss, Sam Phillips. Phillips turned the singer over to guitarist, Scotty Moore, and bassist, Bill Black. All of them were unsure of Elvis’ singing ability until late in an unfruitful demo session, when he started clowning around with Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup‘s tune, “That’s All Right”.  At that moment, Sam Phillips found what he had been looking for— “a white man who could sing black.”

youtube: ‪That’s All Right‬

youtube: ‪Baby Let’s Play House‬

A test pressing was given to Phillip’s friend and WHBQ radio DJ, Dewey Phillips, who played it repeatedly on his Red, Hot, and Blue show. The program’s listeners overwhelmed the station with calls. Sam Phillips loaded copies of the single into the trunk of his car and tirelessly promoted it to radio stations in the region. Elvis, Scotty, and Bill increasingly performed in the area, opening for Slim Whitman at the Overton Park Bandshell. A local radio DJ, named Bob Neal, became their manager and soon had them booked on competing radio programs, The Grand Ole Opry and The Louisiana Hayride. Scotty Moore remembered, “During the instrumental parts he would back off from the mic and be playing and shaking, and the crowd would just go wild”.

The Grand Old Opry spurned Elvis, but the Shreveport-based Louisiana Hayride radio program booked him for a year’s worth of popular weekend appearances. Elvis’ trio picked up the house drummer from the show, D. J. Fontana, and by 1955 the music act was a regional success, despite the radio industry finding Elvis “too black sounding for country stations, too hillbilly for R&B.” Sun records had released 10 singles on Elvis… among them “That’s All Right”, “Good Rocking Tonight”, “Baby Let’s Play House”, “I’m Left, You’re Right, She’s Gone”, “I Forgot to Remember to Forget”, and “Mystery Train”. Colonel Tom Parker, who had worked with country stars Eddy Arnold and Hank Snow, became his manager, and RCA Victor offered Sun an unprecedented $40,000 for Elvis’ contract. Presley’s father had to sign on his behalf because, at age 20, Elvis was considered a minor.

youtube: Heartbreak Hotel‬

youtube: Blue Suede Shoes

In 1956, recording began in RCA’s Nashville studio and included Elvis’ musicians, as well as Chet Atkins, pianist Floyd Cramer, and Gordon Stoker of the gospel singing group The Jordanaires. “Heartbreak Hotel” was released as a single and Elvis’ self-titled RCA album became the first rock and roll album to top the Billboard chart— a position it held for 10 weeks. Parker began pitching Elvis to national television programs, pitting the variety shows hosted by the Dorsey Brothers, Milton Berle, Steve Allen and Ed Sullivan against each other. Sullivan had declared Elvis “unfit for family viewing” but the ratings for the singer’s appearances on his competitors’ shows forced Sullivan to change his mind. The show’s camera work attempted to conceal Elvis’ wild gyrations, but the studio audience screamed in a frenzy. That moment on The Ed Sullivan Show signaled Elvis’ breakthrough into national stardom.

Elvis’ music and stage movements created an outrage from television critics and authority figures. Ben Gross of the New York Daily News wrote that popular music had “reached its lowest depths in the ‘grunt and groin’ antics of one Elvis Presley. … Elvis, who rotates his pelvis … gave an exhibition that was suggestive and vulgar, tinged with the kind of animalism that should be confined to dives and bordellos.” Crowds in Nashville and St. Louis burned Elvis in effigy, but larger and more frenzied crowds attended his live shows. The phenomenon had taken hold.

Elvis’ success afforded him the purchase of his mansion, Graceland, in Memphis where he housed his parents, but the late 1950s and early 1960s were the apex of his career and a number of management missteps from Colonel Parker and bad blood between crucial personnel lie ahead. Parker pushed Presley into a schedule of Las Vegas engagements and formulaic movies that were profitable and popular, but critically panned and a strain on his credibility. The publishing arrangement with the company Hill and Range Music, forced songwriters to give up a larger percentage of their profits for Elvis numbers. Songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, who had penned “Hound Dog”, “Jailhouse Rock” and a number of other Elvis hits, were eventually alienated. Scotty Moore and Bill Black, who had been Elvis’ band from the beginning, were grossly underpaid and shunned. Elvis’ mother Gladys died of hepatitis at the beginning of his two year stint in the army, devastating him and what had been an unusually close relationship. While in Germany during his military service, Elvis met, then 14-year-old, Priscilla Beaulieu, who he would marry seven years later.

youtube: Love Me Tender

By the time he returned from military service in 1960, he had accumulated ten Top 40 hits in the course of his 2 year absence. From 1960 to 1964, three of Elvis’ soundtrack albums charted at number one, but from 1964 to 1968 there was only one hit— “Crying in the Chapel”, which had been recorded back in 1960.  Elvis’ manager and record label were slow to realize the problems. In the midst of a failing career, Elvis married Priscilla in Las Vegas during 1967. Lisa Marie was born in 1968.

Parker made a deal with NBC to broadcast a Christmas television special in 1968 that was intended to be full of holiday music, but Elvis and Steve Binder, the director of the show, conspired to make it something better. What would later be called Elvis’ ’68 Comeback Special featured a relaxed and engaged Elvis, strumming his guitar in the midst of a live audience. It became the network’s highest rated show that season and the soundtrack album made it into the Top Ten. A reinvigorated Elvis was guided by radio DJ and studio owner, Marty Lacker, to record his next album with Chips Moman at his American Sound Studio, which was producing hits for The Box Tops, Neil Diamond and Dusty Springfield. The result was 1969’s Elvis From Memphis album, which featured the hits “In the Ghetto”, “Kentucky Rain” and “Suspicious Minds”. The last two years of the decade were a triumphant comeback, without a doubt, but continually mismanaged business affairs and the unraveling of Presley’s personal life would haunt him and drag him down. Chips Moman was not given credit or any royalties on the Memphis album.

The next decade would be one of spangled jumpsuits and metal-framed sunglasses, Las Vegas shows, weight gain and drug abuse for Elvis. The image of Presley posing with then-President Richard Nixon and taking an anti-drug stance, while increasingly abusing prescription drugs acquired from Memphis physician, Dr. George Nichopoulos, was jarringly indicative of a celebrity becoming unhinged— out of control. Priscilla and Elvis were divorced in 1972 and he twice overdosed on barbiturates in 1973, once remaining in a coma for three days. There were some successes— a concert at Madison Square Garden, the satellite broadcast Aloha From Hawaii, and his single “Burning Love”, which was the last to reach near the top of the pop charts. Elvis, however, was performing concerts in a drug-induced stupor, barely intelligible, and with shortened stage time and cancellations. He spiraled into a world of drug-fueled paranoia, karate and firearms. When his retinue of bodyguards, the “Memphis Mafia”, were taken off of the payroll, they retaliated with a tell-all book, Elvis: What Happened? Presley unsuccessfully tried to stop its release. Tony Scherman wrote, “Elvis Presley had become a grotesque caricature of his sleek, energetic former self. Hugely overweight, his mind dulled by the pharmacopoeia he daily ingested, he was barely able to pull himself through his abbreviated concerts.”

youtube: Suspicious Minds

youtube: A Little Less Conversation

On the afternoon of August 16, 1977, Elvis’ girlfriend, Ginger Alden, found him unconscious on his bathroom floor. Attempts to revive him failed and his death was officially pronounced at 3:30 pm at Baptist Memorial Hospital. Lab tests revealed “fourteen drugs in Elvis’ system, ten in significant quantity.”  Presley’s physician, Dr. Nichopoulos, escaped criminal liability but eventually had his medical license permanently suspended. After an attempt to steal the body from Forest Hill Cemetery, the remains of Elvis and his mother were moved to Graceland, which became a tourist destination and pilgrimage for Elvis fans.

An editor of the New York Times once wrote:

“For those too young to have experienced Elvis Presley in his prime, [his commemoration] must seem peculiar. All the talentless impersonators and appalling black velvet paintings on display can make him seem little more than a perverse and distant memory. But before Elvis was camp, he was its opposite: a genuine cultural force. He was, famously, the white boy from Tupelo, Miss., who sang like a black boy and who shocked refined sensibilities by moving, as Time magazine observed in 1956, ‘as if he had swallowed a jackhammer.’

Elvis’ reputation lost some of its luster during the disintegration he underwent in his final years— the pill-popping, the weight gain, the disorientation on stage. But he was less a victim of his failures than of his success. Elvis’ breakthroughs are underappreciated because in this rock-and-roll age, his hard-rocking music and sultry style have triumphed so completely.”

image credits: Ben Heine; Keith Haring; RCA; Debbie Crawford; Peter Mars; Tim Mount; John Wayne Gacy; Dan Dalton


As one might expect, there is historical argument over the precise point at which rock and roll music was born. There are those who point to the back beat of Big Joe Turner’s “Roll ’em Pete” in 1938, or a number of other Atlantic Records rhythm and blues releases from the late ’40s and early ’50s. Others highlight what was happening with blues music on Chess Records in Chicago in the 1950s. Some cite Ike Turner‘s 1951 recording, “Rocket 88”, and some point to Elvis Presley‘s 1954 recording of “That’s Alright Mama”. Regarding the last two examples, both recordings were cut by Sam Phillips at his Sun Studio in Memphis, TN. Most would agree that the differentiation between jump blues, rhythm and blues, and rockabilly and rock and roll (in its earliest incarnation) was a matter of racial considerations— and appropriation and acceptance by the mass of white society. Sam Phillips stood at the nexus of that issue. He was vital to launching the careers of Elvis Presley, B.B. King, Howlin’ Wolf, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Rufus Thomas, Carl Perkins and numerous other significant artists.

Samuel Cornelius Phillips (January 5, 1923 – July 30, 2003) was raised on a farm outside of Florence, Alabama and attended Alabama Polytechnical Institute in Auburn. He became a radio engineer in the early 1940s for stations in Muscle Shoals and Decatur, AL, Nashville, TN and eventually, in 1945, WREC radio in Memphis. Phillips hosted a radio program called Saturday Afternoon Tea Dance, which was broadcast over the CBS radio network from the Peabody Hotel’s Skyway Room.

In 1950, Sam Phillips borrowed money to open the Memphis Recording Service at 706 Union Avenue. He and his friend (and soon-to-become-legendary Memphis radio DJ) Dewey Phillips began a short-lived record label called It’s the Phillips – “The Hottest Thing in the Country.” On August 30,1950, three hundred copies of “Boogie in the Park” by Joe Hill Louis were pressed. The Bihari brothers’ independent Modern Records label from Los Angeles, CA had signed B.B. King to a subsidiary and contracted Phillips to record the five singles. Soon Phillips was offering recordings by Joe Hill, jazz pianist Phineas Newborn, Jr., Rosco Gordon, Walter Horton, and Bobby “Blue” Bland to the Biharis and Chicago’s Chess brothers.

youtube: ‪Joe Hill Louis‬

youtube: ‪Rocket 88‬

Ike Turner on ‪Rocket 88‬

In 1951, heated wrangling erupted between Phillips, Modern Records and Chess Records over first option for leased masters of “How Many More Years” and “Baby Ride With Me” by Howling Wolf and Ike Turner’s “Rocket 88” by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats. Out of this conflict, in an era when small, independent record labels were beginning to create a large influence, Phillips started his Sun Records label. Sun’s first attempt, “Blues in My Condition” by Jackie Boy and Little Walter, was not considered worthy enough for commercial release, making the first official Sun release “Drivin’ Slow” by Johnny London, a sixteen year old black saxophonist, in March of  1952.

In 1952, the Memphis-based Duke label had a number one hit with Johnny Ace‘s “My Song”, and also signed Bobby “Blue” Bland. Under this pressure of competition with other labels for local talent, Sun scored its first hit in 1953. WDIA disc jockey, Rufus Thomas’ “Bear Cat” was an answer to Big Mama Thornton’s “Hound Dog”, and he scored a follow up hit that year with “Tiger Man”. The same year saw successful Sun releases from Billy “The Kid” Emerson, Little Junior Parker and Little Milton Campbell— but more so for a group of inmates from the Nashville State Penitentiary called The Prisonaires and their recording “Just Walkin’ in the Rain”.

youtube: ‪‪Rufus Thomas‬

youtube: ‪Prisonaires‬‬

The year 1953 was also notable for Sun because a young truck driver named Elvis Presley stopped in on his lunch hour to record two songs for his mother’s birthday. Sun’s more-than-a-secretary, Marion Keisker, recorded Elvis in Sam Phillip’s absence and continually lobbied on the young singer’s behalf. A year later, Sam auditioned Elvis and paired him with guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black. On July 5, 1954, after unsuccessful attempts at a Bing Crosby tune and a country number, Elvis, Scotty and Bill began goofing around on a blues tune during a break. Sam Phillips heard them speed up, Mississippi bluesman, Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup‘s “That’s Alright Mama” and knew he had something unusual.

youtube: ‪Arthur ‘Big Boy’ Crudup‬‬‬

Phillips loaded copies of the record into his car and hit the road promoting it throughout the region, and managed to book Elvis on the Grand Ole Opry and the Louisiana Hayride radio shows. Elvis’ music became hits on country radio stations first, because there was no other format for this music that channeled the energy of the blues with a beat, and straddled racial and musical boundaries. The five singles that Presley made for Sun literally fused blues numbers on one side of the platter with country on the other. Rockabilly music was born. By late in the year 1955, Elvis was an uncontrollable regional sensation poised to break into the consciousness of the American experience.

Sam Phillips, knowing he could not hold onto the phenomenon once Elvis’ contract with Sun expired, sold the contract to RCA Victor for $40,000 in November of 1955. Elvis’ success at Sun drew other artists like Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Roy Orbison and Charlie Rich, Bill Justis, and Harold Jenkins (a.k.a. Conway Twitty). Sonny Burgess (“My Bucket’s Got A Hole In It”), Junior Parker, and Billy Lee Riley recorded for Sun with some success, as well.


Sam Phillips and Sun saw the promise and disappointment inherent in the music business when the success of Carl Perkins’ “Blue Suede Shoes” was hindered by his automobile accident. Or when Sun’s Jack Clement discovered Jerry Lee Lewis, but the success of “Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On” and “Great Balls of Fire” fell prey to the scandal of Lewis’ marriage to his 13 year old cousin. Bill Justis had the first rock and roll instrumental hit in 1957 with “Raunchy” and it scored number 2 on the Billboard charts. Johnny Cash was a consistent revenue for Sun until leaving for the Columbia label in 1958.

‪‪youtube: Carl Perkins‬

youtube: ‪‪Jerry Lee Lewis‬‬‬‬

In the summer of 1958 Sun moved to 639 Madison Avenue in Memphis. Judd Phillips, Sam’s brother, had worked promotion for Roy Acuff and Jimmy Durante and brought his expertise to Sun. Scotty Moore, Elvis’ original guitarist, was made studio manager and chief cutting engineer, as the company took on more staff. Sun opened a studio in Nashville on 17th Street in 1961 and hired, famed engineer, Billy Sherill, who cut hits on Jerry Lee Lewis and Charlie Rich, but the studio quickly ran into problems. The 1960s saw Sun’s influence fade and Sam Phillips fielded many offers to buy Sun and its catalog. Jerry Wexler from Atlantic offered a distribution deal similar to the one struck with Stax, but Phillips deferred.

In 1969, Sam Phillips sold Sun to Nashville record executive Shelby Singleton, known for his work with Ray Stevens and Jeannie C. Riley’s “Harper Valley PTA”. The company remains vital today… marketing its hit recordings, boxed sets and collectible memorabilia. Sam Phillips successfully invested his earnings and was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, the Rockabilly Hall of Fame, the Blues Hall of Fame, the Alabama Music Hall of Fame, the Country Music Hall of Fame and won a Grammy Trustees Award for his lifetime achievements.  He died of respiratory failure in Memphis on July 30, 2003—  a day before the original Sun Studio was designated a National Historic Landmark.

‪‪youtube: Raunchy‬

‪‪youtube: Sam Phillips‬

“Back in the early ’50s I was looking to create something different. From the beginning, I was very much interested in exploring some paths that had not been trodden and looking for the hidden possibilities. What I tried to do with each artist was to find his natural honesty in terms of what he liked to do, regardless of what category of music it might fall into. The artists who I worked with all had a certain basic honesty in their music, and after assuring and working with them, and gaining their confidence and their trust in me, I think they then really knew that they had somebody who was working with them in the common interest of seeing what they had.”- Sam Phillips to interviewer Richard Buskin

image credits: John Boija; Michael Ochs Archives; Sun; ibid.; ibid.; GAB Archive/Redferns; Bai Bayev; Salon